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quinta-feira, 12 de fevereiro de 2015

NESTOR 2

Faltava eu colocar mais informações e fotos sobre o Nestor 2, projeto de microcomputador com Z80 da revista Nova Eletrônica, com repaginação do Victor Trucco e firmware adaptado pelo Fábio Belavenuto.

Inicialmente eu até tentei montar e testar em protoboard, mas não funcionou a tentativa. Além de ficar muito confuso e sujeito a falhas e mau contato. Vejam a bagunça:
Começou a faltar fiozinho pra fazer as ligações e meu protoboard não foi suficiente para colocar as teclas, portanto o que me levou a montar o Nestor 2 na placa de circuito impresso.

As fotos a seguir são da sequência de montagem:
 
 Placa com os resistores soldados.

Com os botões colocados.

 
Colocação dos soquetes de cis e para os displays e jacks do cassete.

Com os displays de sete segmentos (vermelhos).


 
Quase no final, com os transistores.

Com o conector de força e o cristal (soquetado).
Cristal de 4MHz.


Placa toda montada, com os integrados e ligada com os displays vermelhos. Na verdade, eles ficaram muito fracos na luminosidade, então substitui pelos verdes que vieram no kit, e que são de brilho mais intenso.


A seguir, mostro algumas das funções e como funciona o teclado:
Existem 24 teclas: 16 com os dígitos hexadecimais de 0 a F, e 7 teclas para funções. A primeira tecla é a "P" de permissão. Ela serve para entramos com dados de endereço. Ao apertarmos P, os quatro dígitos da esquerda e os dois da direita se apagam e podemos entrar com um endereço de 4 dígitos hexadecimais ($0000 a $FFFF, ou 0 a 65535 decimal, que é o máximo de endereços de memória que o Z80 pode acessar). Digitando 0000, e em seguida apertamos "L" de leitura, podemos ver o dado nessa posição de memória.


Nestor com displays verdes e mostrando o conteúdo do endereço $0000, que tem $31 (EPROM). Podemos alterar o conteúdo da posição de memória (desde que seja RAM), apenas digitando-se os novos dados no teclado. As informações digitadas correm da direita para esquerda continuamente, de forma que não é necessário se apagar se houver erro na digitação.

As teclas -1 e +1 apenas decrementam ou incrementas a posição de memória em uma posição. 
Apertando +1, o endereço aumenta de 1.





A tecla "R" faz rodar o programa em assembly que estiver no endereço de memória mostrado no display. Esse é um programa na EPROM que mostra uma palavra.

 A tecla "ER" faz com que o conteúdo dos registradores internos do Z80 sejam mostrados.
Inicialmente o valor do registrador A (acumulador).

Apertando ER novamente, mostra o registrador B.

Mais uma vez o ER, e aparece o registrador C. Em sequência serão apresentados os registradores D, E, H, L, F (flags) e I, depois retornando ao acumulador.

 Por fim, a tecla IV, é para definir uma interrupção vetorizada.


Quem precisa de Raspberry Pi ou Arduino ? Isso é para os fracos. Os fortes programam em assembly,  digitando diretamente os opcodes em hexadecimal na mão (he he he).


Até é possível fazer montagens experimentais e interligação com protoboard (como fazem com Arduino e Raspberry Pi) graças ao conector em barra com os sinais do Z80 disponíveis.

Aqui os esquemas do Nestor:
Circuito de geração de clock, circuito de reset e pullups de alguns pinos do Z80. Como eu coloquei um soquete para o cristal, isso permite que eu mude a frequência do clock apenas trocando o cristal. Eu coloquei um cristal de 2MHz para testar alguns Z80 (de 2,5MHz de clock máximo) e com o Z80A deixei com cristal de 4MHz (o original da revista era um de 3,58MHz).

As memórias usadas foram uma 2732 de 4kbytes em EPROM e uma RAM estática 62256 de 32 kbytes.

Circuito de decodificação e seleção de memórias e entrada e saída. O 74LS138 decodifica e seleciona quais chips de memória serão acessados. Os sinais de entrada são: endereços de A13 a A15 e MREQ (pedido de memória). Isso significa que o 74LS138 aciona blocos de memória de 8kbytes em cada saída. A primeira saída aciona a EPROM de 4kbytes ($0000 a $0FFF) sendo que a EPROM fica espelhada nos endereços de $1000 a $1FFF). A RAM fica no espaço de endereços de $2000 a $9FFF, para isso 4 saídas do 74LS138 são combinadas com portas E do 74LS08.

A habilitação de entrada e saída é feita combinado os sinais IORQ (pedido de entrada e saída) com os sinais WR e RD (write e read).

Circuitos de portas de entrada e saída, habilitadas pelos sinais combinados no esquema anterior. Para isso as entradas passam por buffers tri state 74LS126 e os dados de saída ficam disponíveis e guardados em latches 74LS75. Existem dois barramentos de acesso na placa.

Circuito do teclado matricial, acionado por portas de entrada semelhantes ao esquema anterior e usando buffers tri state 74LS126.

Circuito dos displays de catodo comum multiplexados.

Circuito da interface de cassete (gravação e leitura) e do alto falante.

E aqui o firmware a ser gravado na EPROM com o programa monitor básico e de cassete.
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